Group R The History Of Space Travel

On 12 April 1961, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to travel into space when he launched into orbit on the Vostok 3KA-3 spacecraft (Vostok 1). In 1989, Helen Sharman entered a competition to become the first British astronaut in space. After 18 months of intensive training, Helen was part of a Russian mission to the MIR space station. She spent eight days in space conducting scientific experiments. She used to work for the sweet company that makes Mars bars! On the 28th April 2001 American millionaire Dennis Tito became the first space tourist when he paid around 20 million dollars for a ride in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Dennis spent a week in orbit, most of the time visiting the International Space Station. He had to train for 900 hours just to be a passenger! As NASA began to plan retirement for the Space Shuttle, private companies began work on spacecraft to replace it. One of these companies, Space X, became the first to launch a privately funded liquid-fueled rocket into Orbit, the Falcon 1. Space X now uses its Falcon rockets to launch their Dragon capsule - an unmanned vehicle that takes supplies to the ISS. The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972. there where 17 apollo missions all together and one of the most well know was 11, the first flight to land on the moon, manned. on the mission was buzz aldrin and neil armstrong. many people believe the mission was staged so that america could win the space race, but i think it was probably not. When astronauts make it back to earth they have to be carried out of the space craft as their bodies have to get used to the earths gravitational pull as there is more gravity on earth as there is up in space.

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The most-loved of all NASA spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope has name recognition around the world. Its photos have changed the way everyday people figure themselves into the cosmos. The observatory has also radically changed science, making breakthroughs on astronomical issues too numerous to count. By finally sending up an optical telescope to peer at the sky from beyond Earth's turbulent atmosphere, NASA developed a tool that could reveal stars, planets, nebulae and galaxies in all their fully-detailed glory. NASA's Viking Project found a place in history when it became the first U.S. mission to land a spacecraft safely on the surface of Mars and return images of the surface. Two identical spacecraft, each consisting of a lander and an orbiter, were built. Each orbiter-lander pair flew together and entered Mars orbit; the landers then separated and descended to the planet's surface. The pair where very significant in taking HD images of mars and exploring the surface of the mysterious planet.

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The twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are exploring where nothing from Earth has flown before. Continuing on their more-than-37-year journey since their 1977 launches, they each are much farther away from Earth and the sun than Pluto. In August 2012, Voyager 1 made the historic entry into interstellar space, the region between stars, filled with material ejected by the death of nearby stars millions of years ago. The primary mission was the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. After making a string of discoveries there — such as active volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io and intricacies of Saturn's rings — the mission was extended. Voyager 2 went on to explore Uranus and Neptune, and is still the only spacecraft to have visited those outer planets. The adventurers' current mission, the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM), will explore the outermost edge of the Sun's domain.

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this golden record was sent with the voyager, containing sounds from earth, like men talking and Mozart to show we have culture. The disk has binary on it to show that there is intelligent life and a picture of man to show what we are like as humans.

the pioneer missions are among the most well know missions. they where the first missions to fisit the gas giants, Jupiter and Saturn, and they took some amazing photos from close up. the pioneers are still in the solar system and are no longer sending any data back to earth. at the time they where the the fastest things to ever leave planet earth. the pioneers had lots of problem travelling through the thick asteroid belt before being free for close up photography. During its flyby of Jupiter on 2 December 1974, Pioneer 11 obtained dramatic images of the Great Red Spot, made the first observation of the immense polar regions, and determined the mass of Jupiter's moon, Callisto. Measured from its farthest ends, from the horn of the medium-gain antenna to the tip of the omnidirectional antenna, the Pioneer spacecraft is 2.9 meters (9 1/2 feet) long.

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched and deployed by Space Shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999. It was the most sophisticated X-ray observatory to date when launched. Since the Earth's atmosphere absorbs the vast majority of X-rays, they are not detectable from ground-based telescopes, requiring a space-based telescope to make these observations. Chandra has answered and will continue to answer many questions about the high-energy universe, enabling scientists to pose new questions about the universe. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is the worlds most powerful X-ray telescope. It has eight-times greater resolution and will be able to detect sources more than 20-times fainter than any previous X-ray telescope.
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